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## Atomic clock - Wikipedia

OverviewHistoryMechanismPower consumptionEvaluated accuracyResearchApplicationsSee alsoAn atomic clock is a clock device that uses a hyperfine transition frequency in the microwave, or electron transition frequency in the optical or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element. Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standards known, and are used as primary standards for international time distribution services, to control the wave frequency of television broadcasts, and in global navigation satellite systems such as GPS.

## Atomic Standards Group NIST

Jun 04, 2018 The Atomic Standards group maintains the primary frequency standard, the time scale, and the transfer operations for the U.S. contribution to the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.

## Rubidium standard - Wikipedia

OverviewSee alsoExternal linksA rubidium standard or rubidium atomic clock is a frequency standard in which a specified hyperfine transition of electrons in rubidium-87 atoms is used to control the output frequency. It is the most inexpensive, compact, and widely produced atomic clock, used to control the frequency of television stations, cell phone base stations, in test equipment, and global navigation satellite systems like GPS. Commercial rubidium clocks are less accurate than caesium atomic clocks, which serve as primary freq

## Rubidium Frequency Standard, Atomic Clock, Cesium ...

Nano Atomic Clock (NAC1) 50 .00 39 .00. The NAC1 is the newest addition to AccuBeat’s line of Rubidium Frequency Standards. The Nano Atomic Clock incorporating traditional glass technology. Read More. Buy Now

## A Brief Notes To Time/Frequency Standards - An Introduction

Cesium (caesium) Standard: The cesium standard is the primary standard of time/frequency. It is the standard maintained by over 250+ atomic stations around the world for keeping the UTC. The commercially available primary standards have an accuracy of ± 1 in 10 11. Rubidium Standard: Rubidium is known as the secondary standard for time ...

## Frequency standard - Wikipedia

A frequency standard is a stable oscillator used for frequency calibration or reference. A frequency standard generates a fundamental frequency with a high degree of accuracy and precision.Harmonics of this fundamental frequency are used to provide reference points. Since time is the reciprocal of frequency, it is relatively easy to derive a time standard from a frequency standard.

## Statistics of atomic frequency standards - IEEE Journals ...

Statistics of atomic frequency standards Abstract: A theoretical development is presented which results in a relationship between the expectation value of the standard deviation of the frequency fluctuations for any finite number of data samples and the infinite time average value of the standard deviation, which provides an invariant measure ...

## Hydrogen maser - Wikipedia

A hydrogen maser, also known as hydrogen frequency standard, is a specific type of maser that uses the intrinsic properties of the hydrogen atom to serve as a precision frequency reference.. Both the proton and electron of a hydrogen atom have spins. The atom has a higher energy if both are spinning in the same direction, and a lower energy if they spin in opposite directions.

## Caesium standard - Wikipedia

The caesium standard is a primary frequency standard in which the photon absorption by transitions between the two hyperfine ground states of caesium-133 atoms are used to control the output frequency. The first caesium clock was built by Louis Essen in 1955 at the National Physical Laboratory in the UK. and promoted worldwide by Gernot M. R. Winkler of the USNO.

## HF Time and Frequency Standard Stations - S-Meter

15 行 HF Time Frequency Standard Stations The stations below are widely used to check current

## HF Time and Frequency Standard Stations - S-Meter

HF Time Frequency Standard Stations The stations below are widely used to check current radio propagation conditions. T he primary functions of WWV and WWVH are to transmit official standard time on highly accurate reference frequencies traceable to the U.S. national standard. Other stations listed below serve similar functions in other countries.

## A Review of Contemporary Atomic Frequency Standards

A microwave frequency standard based on laser-cooled Cd-113(+) ions has been developed in recent years, and the short-term frequency instability is measured to be 6.1 x 10(-13) / root tau.

## The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards: Recent ...

Up-to-Date Coverage of Stable and Accurate Frequency Standards. The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards: Recent Developments covers advances in atomic frequency standards (atomic clocks) from the last several decades. It explains the use of various techniques, such as laser optical pumping, coherent population trapping, laser cooling, and electromagnetic and optical trapping, in the ...

## GPS Clocks, Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard (RAFS)

The Excelitas Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard ( RAFS) is an exceptionally high-performance and high-reliability space-qualified rubidium clock developed for global navigation satellite systems.

## Proposal of A New Space Atomic Frequency Standard - NASA/ADS

A new prototype atomic fountain clock working in the micro-gravity environment is proposed. The successive Ramsey interactions of cold atoms and oscillatory field are realized by means of computer-controlled periodic motion of oscillatory field while the cold atoms stay still relatively in the prototype. Preliminary analyses in comparison with the atomic fountain clock working on the ground ...

## GPS BLOCK IIF ATOMIC FREQUENCY STANDARD ANALYSIS

generated for each atomic frequency standard reviewing the current month and the overall test period. The reports are made available on a secure NRL Web site for the test participants. The Block IIF life test is scheduled to run for a minimum of 3 years [4,5].

## FE-5680A Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard Oscillator ...

FE-5680A Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard Oscillator Transceivers 10MHz Out brand: SainSmart SKU: 20-022-103 UPC: 6955170897100 Product ID: 11091696020 Variants ID: 45100163092 $154.39 FREE SHIPPING

## NIST Team Demonstrates Heart of Next-Generation Chip-Scale ...

May 17, 2019 In NIST’s original chip-scale atomic clock, the atoms were probed with a microwave frequency. Commercial versions of this clock have become an industry standard for portable applications requiring high timing stability. But they require initial calibration and their frequency can drift over time, resulting in significant timing errors.

## A Proposal for a New Absolute Frequency Standard, Using a ...

A new kind of atomic beam absolute frequency standard is proposed. The fine structure 3P,, m.j = 0 c, 8P1, mj = 0 line of the Mg or Ca metastable triplet state is used as reference transition. The basic design features and the limiting factors are analyzed. The frequency stability is mainly limited by the

## A History of the Rubidium Frequency Standard

An atomic clock is a device that utilizes an atomic reso-nance to produce a highly-stable frequency suitable as a fre-quency reference and/or for precise timekeeping. The rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standard (RFS or “Rb oscillator”1) is, by far, the most commonly-used form of atomic clock.

## NIST-F1 Cesium Fountain Atomic Clock NIST

The Primary Time and Frequency Standard for the United States. NIST-F1, the nation's primary time and frequency standard, is a cesium fountain atomic clock developed at the NIST laboratories in Boulder, Colorado. NIST-F1 contributes to the international group of atomic clocks that define Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), the official world time.

## Selecting a Primary Frequency Standard for a Calibration ...

a quartz primary standard, and opt instead for an atomic standard or a GPSDO. This requires spending more money initially, but will enhance the measurement capability of the lab, and save both time and money in the long run. 2.2 Rubidium Oscillators Rubidium oscillators are the least expensive atomic frequency standards.

## Frequency standards, GPS-synchronized, stand-alone, and ...

As an in-house reference standard for calibration or as the master clock for test instruments, the GPS-12R provides a continuous stable and accurate frequency standard. The GPS-12R/HS with optional 1, 5, 10 MHz outputs is the ideal precision reference standard for use in; metrology, radar antenna array systems, public utilities, and the ...

## Rubidium Frequency Standard - FS725

FS725 Rubidium Frequency Standard The FS725 integrates a rubidium oscillator (SRS model PRS10), a low noise universal AC power supply, and distribution amplifiers in a compact half-width 2U chassis. It provides stable and reliable performance, with an estimated 20 year aging of less than 5 × 10 -9 and a demonstrated rubidium oscillator MTBF of ...

## Frequency standards, GPS-synchronized, stand-alone, and ...

As an in-house reference standard for calibration or as the master clock for test instruments, the GPS-12R provides a continuous stable and accurate frequency standard. The GPS-12R/HS with optional 1, 5, 10 MHz outputs is the ideal precision reference standard for use in; metrology, radar antenna array systems, public utilities, and the ...

## A Review of Contemporary Atomic Frequency Standards

A microwave frequency standard based on laser-cooled Cd-113(+) ions has been developed in recent years, and the short-term frequency instability is measured to be 6.1 x 10(-13) / root tau.

## GPS Clocks, Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard (RAFS)

The Excelitas Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard ( RAFS) is an exceptionally high-performance and high-reliability space-qualified rubidium clock developed for global navigation satellite systems.

## Primary Atomic Frequency Standards at NIST

The end of the era of quartz frequency standards began in 1949 with the development at NBS of the world’s first atomic frequency standard based on an ammonia absorption line at 23.87 GHz . At the beginning of this early period of development of atomic frequency standards, both quartz and atomic standards were achieving frequency uncertainties ...

## The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards Taylor ...

Basic physics of selected atomic systems. Electromagnetic and noise concepts. Random perturbations - lines shapes, relaxation and frequency shifts. State selection and population inversion. The caesium atomic beam frequency standard. The hydrogen maser. Rubidium frequency standards. Other atomic frequency standards and related topics.

## Rubidium Frequency Standard, Model FRK National Museum ...

This compact rubidium frequency standard is the commercial Model FRK, first made by Efratom Elektronik, Munich, Germany, and later by Efratom California in Irvine, Ca. Gerhard Hübner and Ernst Jechart established the firm in 1971 and a year later supplied examples of the clock to the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, D.C., for inclusion on NTS-1, the first of the Navigation ...

## Rubidium Frequency Standard - FS725

FS725 Rubidium Frequency Standard The FS725 integrates a rubidium oscillator (SRS model PRS10), a low noise universal AC power supply, and distribution amplifiers in a compact half-width 2U chassis. It provides stable and reliable performance, with an estimated 20 year aging of less than 5 × 10 -9 and a demonstrated rubidium oscillator MTBF of ...

## A Proposal for a New Absolute Frequency Standard, Using a ...

A new kind of atomic beam absolute frequency standard is proposed. The fine structure 3P,, m.j = 0 c, 8P1, mj = 0 line of the Mg or Ca metastable triplet state is used as reference transition. The basic design features and the limiting factors are analyzed. The frequency stability is mainly limited by the

## A History of the Rubidium Frequency Standard

An atomic clock is a device that utilizes an atomic reso-nance to produce a highly-stable frequency suitable as a fre-quency reference and/or for precise timekeeping. The rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standard (RFS or “Rb oscillator”1) is, by far, the most commonly-used form of atomic clock.

## An atomic physics perspective on the kilogram’s new ...

Realizations of the kilogram standard, whether conceptual or practical, connect the mechanical or relativistic energy of a particle or object to a frequency, which is compared to an atomic frequency standard. In that way, atomic physics is central to the new definition of the kilogram.

## "Compact Optical Frequency Standards for Future ...

The optical rubidium atomic frequency standard has shown fractional frequency instabilities of $4\times 10^{-13}/\sqrt{\tau(s)}$ for $\tau$ from 1 to 10,000 seconds, with potential to achieve instabilities of less then $1\times 10^{-13}$ at one second and less then $4\times 10^{-15}$ at one day.

## Rubidium Standard For Sale - Parts For Tractors

Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard Fe-5650a Opt-58 Output 10mhz - $279.99 Read More 10mhz Efratom Rubidium Frequency Standard Frs-a , Square-wave , High Level Ttl - $269.99

## Proposal of A New Space Atomic Frequency Standard

A standard uncertainty of 4 kHz was obtained against 2 kHz in 1993, while the average frequency difference between the lasers was −1.0 kHz against 14.2 kHz in 1993.

## GPS-based frequency standard - Homo Ludens

One is to buy a used atomic frequency standard, which is available on eBay for less than 100 dollars (2013 prices), and build the necessary electronics around it to suit one's needs. The other is to buy a used GPS board, which is available for just 35 dollars, and also build the necessary electronics around it.

## Primary Atomic Frequency Standards at NIST

The end of the era of quartz frequency standards began in 1949 with the development at NBS of the world’s first atomic frequency standard based on an ammonia absorption line at 23.87 GHz . At the beginning of this early period of development of atomic frequency standards, both quartz and atomic standards were achieving frequency uncertainties ...

## A Review of Contemporary Atomic Frequency Standards

A microwave frequency standard based on laser-cooled Cd-113(+) ions has been developed in recent years, and the short-term frequency instability is measured to be 6.1 x 10(-13) / root tau.

## An atomic physics perspective on the kilogram’s new ...

Realizations of the kilogram standard, whether conceptual or practical, connect the mechanical or relativistic energy of a particle or object to a frequency, which is compared to an atomic frequency standard. In that way, atomic physics is central to the new definition of the kilogram.

## A Proposal for a New Absolute Frequency Standard, Using a ...

A new kind of atomic beam absolute frequency standard is proposed. The fine structure 3P,, m.j = 0 c, 8P1, mj = 0 line of the Mg or Ca metastable triplet state is used as reference transition. The basic design features and the limiting factors are analyzed. The frequency stability is mainly limited by the

## Proposal of A New Space Atomic Frequency Standard

A standard uncertainty of 4 kHz was obtained against 2 kHz in 1993, while the average frequency difference between the lasers was −1.0 kHz against 14.2 kHz in 1993.

## (PDF) The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards ...

PDF On Sep 1, 1990, P Forman published The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards. Jacques Vanier and Claude Audoin. Hilger, Philadelphia,

## GPS-based frequency standard - Homo Ludens

One is to buy a used atomic frequency standard, which is available on eBay for less than 100 dollars (2013 prices), and build the necessary electronics around it to suit one's needs. The other is to buy a used GPS board, which is available for just 35 dollars, and also build the necessary electronics around it.

## "Compact Optical Frequency Standards for Future ...

The optical rubidium atomic frequency standard has shown fractional frequency instabilities of $4\times 10^{-13}/\sqrt{\tau(s)}$ for $\tau$ from 1 to 10,000 seconds, with potential to achieve instabilities of less then $1\times 10^{-13}$ at one second and less then $4\times 10^{-15}$ at one day.

## Rb-Disciplined Frequency Standards Frequency Electronics

Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standards are being used increasingly in telecommunication applications, particularly wireless telephone networks. With increased demand for cellular services but limited bandwidth, the requirement for precise timing becomes paramount.

## Radio Station WWVB NIST

WWVB continuously broadcasts digital time codes on a 60 kHz carrier that may serve as a stable frequency reference traceable to the national standard at NIST. The time codes are synchronized with the 60 kHz carrier and are broadcast continuously in two different formats at a rate of 1 bit per second using pulse width modulation (PWM) as well as ...

## The cesium frequency standard

The development of the cesium (Cs) frequency standard took place at the same time as the discussion and adoption of the Ephemeris second. The rst Cs beam atomic clock was built by Essen and Parry in 1955. The frequency of the Cs standard had to be calibrated against the Ephemeris second. This was done by Markowitz in 1958 [3].

## Mini Rb Atomic Frequency Standard (MiniRAFS) Orolia

Spectratime MiniRAFS Rb Atomic Frequency Standard. MiniRAFS Oscillator Overview. Request Info or Quote. The MiniRAFS is a cost-effective, ultra-high-performance, miniaturized, space-qualified rubidium frequency standard.

## Statistics of atomic frequency standards - NASA/ADS

The theory is applied in classifying the types of noise on the signals of frequency standards made available at NBS, Boulder Laboratories, such as: masers (both H and N15H3), the cesium beam frequency standard employed as the U. S. Frequency Standard, and rubidium gas cells.

## Frequency Standards. Rubidium OXCO

The DA101010-03 is a crystal standard with a high stability OXCO as the frequency reference. There are also ten sinewave and two squarewave outputs. The internal frequency reference has a daily aging rate of 2 x 10-10 per day.